Selasa, 26 Juli 2011

TUGAS BAHASA INGGRIS

Auxiliary Verb

DEFINITION
    An auxiliary (also called helping verb, helper verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further sematic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it.

KINDS OF AUXILIARY
1.    To Be
Auxiliary verbs is usually used such as be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been. As auxiliary verbs, to be is usually used by “past participle” to make passive sentence and by “present participle” to make continuous sentence.
Example:
•  He is watching TV.
•  We are teaching you about helping verbs.
•  Small fish are eaten by big fish.
•  He was killed in the war.
•  The agencies were the resource persons completing the inventories.
•  I will of uterus soon be seeing.
•  He Had only been Trying to help.
•  The house is being painted.

2.    To Do
Auxiliary verbs that’s used such as do, does, did. As an auxiliary verbs, to do is usually used together with main verbs to make interrogative sentence and negative sentence. And also used to give pressure or avoid the repeating of main verbs. These auxiliary verbs are also known by the term of dummy operator or dummy auxiliary.
Example:
•  Do you like bananas?
•  Where do you live?
•  Do not forget to write.
•  It does not matter if you win or lose.
•  I did not know what to do.
•  What did you do with that notebook?

3.    To Have
Auxiliary verbs that’s used such as have, has, had.  As an auxiliary verbs, to have is used by the main verbs to make perfect sentences.
Example:
•  I have completed my work.
•  She has acted in a movie.
•  They had forgotten to send the letter.
•  Our guests have arrived.


MODAL AUXILIARY
1.    Must, can, may, might: how certain?
We can use must to say that something is logically necessary, or that we suppose it is certain. The negative is cannot or can’t, not must not.
Example:
•  If A is bigger than B, and B is bigger than C  then A must be bigger than C.
•  Mary must have a problem  she keeps crying.
•  There’s the doorbell  It must be Roger.
Can is used in questions.
Example:
•  There’s the phone. Who can it be?
May suggests that something is possible.  Might suggests a weaker possibility.
Example:
•  She may be at home. (perhaps a 50% chance)
•  Ann might be there too. (a smaller chance)
•  According to the radio, it may rain today. It might even snow.
Note the different between may/might not and can’t
 The game may/might not finish before ten. (Perhaps it won’t)
 The game can’t finish before ten. (It’s not possible)

2.    Must, should etc: obligation
Must is used for orders and for strong suggestions, advice, and opinions.
Should is used for less strong suggestions, advice, and opinions.
Example:
•  You must stop smoking or you’ll die.
•  You really should stop smoking, you know. It’s bad for you.
•  People must realize that the world is in serious trouble.
•  People should drive more carefully.
Ought is similar to should, but is followed by to
Example:
•  People ought to drive more carefully.
Orders and instructions can be made more polite by using should
Example:
•  Applications should be sent before 30 June.
We often use should in question when we are wondering what to do
  Should I change my job or stay where I am?

3.    Must  and have (got) to: obligation
Must usually expresses the feelings and wishes of the speaker / hearer.
Have (got) to often express obligations that come from somewhere else.
Compare:
•  I must stop smoking. (I want to)
•  I’ve got to stop smoking – doctor’s orders
•  Must you wear those dirty jeans? (Is that what you want?)
•  Do you have to wear a tie at work? (Is there a rule?)
Unlike have to, must has no infinitive, participles or past tense
  When you leave school  you’ll have to find a job. (NOT You’ll must…)
  I don’t like having to cook every evening
  We’ve had to change our plans for the summer
  Joe had to go home yesterday (NOT  Joe must/musted…)


4.    Must not, do not have to, etc
We use must not  in prohibitions (negative orders).
We use do not have to, do not need to or need not to say that something is unnecessary.
Example:
•  Students must not leave bicycles in front of the library.
•  Passengers must not speak to the driver.
•  Friday’s a holiday – I don’t have to work. (NOT  I mustn’t work)
•  You’ll needn’t pay now – tomorrow’s OK. (NOT  You mustn’t pay now …)


5.    Can (ability): special problems
Future: we can use can if we are deciding now what to do in the future.
In other cases, we have to use will be able to.
Example:
•  I can see you tomorrow morning for half an hour.
•  One day we will be able to live without wars. (NOT One day we can live …)
Conditional: we can use could to mean ‘would be able to’
Example:
•  You could get a better job if you spoke a foreign language.
Past: we do not use could to say that we managed to do something on one occasion. Instead, we use, for example: managed to or succeeded in …. ing.
Example:
•  I managed to get up early today. (NOT I could get up early today)
•  After six hours, we succeeded in getting the top of the mountain.
    (NOT After six hours, we could get …)
BUT: She could read when she was four. (Not one occasion)
          He couldn’t find the ticket office. (He didn’t manage it)

We often use can and could with see, hear, feel, smell, and taste. With the same meaning as a progressive form
  I can see Susan coming. (NOT I am seeing …)
  What’s in the soup? I can taste something funny.
  Through the window, I could hear a man singing.







6.    Can, could, may: permission, etc.
We can use can to ask for and give permissions, and cannot / can’t to refuse it.
Example:
•  ‘Can I ask you a question?’ ‘Yes, of course you can.’
•  I’m sorry you can’t come in here.
We also use could to ask for permission; it is more polite.
Example:
•  Could I have look at your newspaper?
May is used in the same way. It is more formal and less common.
Example:
•  May I help you, sir?
We use can and could (but not usually may) n to talk about what is normally allowed.
Example:
•  Can you park in this street on Sundays? (NOT May you park ….?)
We use can in offers, requests and instructions.
Example:
•  Can I carry your bag?
•  I can baby-sit for you this evening if you like.
•  Can you put the children to the bed.
•  When you’ve finished the beds you can clean up the kitchen.
Could sounds less definite; it is common in suggestions and request.
Example:
•  I could do some shopping for you, if that would help.
•  ‘I’m bored.’ ‘you could go for a bike ride’
•  Could you help me for a few minutes?
Common structures in polite requests:
•  Could you possibly help me?
•  I wonder if you could help me?


7.    Will: willingness, etc
Will can express willingness and intentions.
We often use will to announce a decision at the moment when we make it.
Example:
•  I really will give up smoking tomorrow!
•  We’ll buy the tickets if you’ll make supper after the show.
•  There’s the doorbell. I’ll go. (NOT I go.)
Will you …? Can introduce instructions, orders and request. Would you …? Is softer, and can be used to make request more polite.
Example:
•  Will you get me a paper while you’re out?
•  Will you be quite, please?
•  Would you watch the children for a few minutes?
Won’t can be used to talk about refusals.
Example:
•  He won’t talk to anybody.
•  The car won’t start.
We can use will to make threats and promises. The simple present is not possible in this case.
Example:
•  I’ll hit you if you do that again. (NOT I hit you if…)
•  You’ll get your money tomorrow. (NOT You get …)
•  I promise I’ll stop smoking. (NOT I promise I stop smoking)

8.    Will and would: typical behavior
We can use will to talk about habits and typical behavior.
Example:
•  She’ll sit talking to herself for hours.
•  If something breaks down and you kick it, it will often start working again.
If we stress will it can sound critical.
Example:
•  She will fall in love with the wrong people.
Would is used to talk about the past.
Example:
•  On Saturdays, when I was a child, we would all get up early and go fishing.
•  He was a nice boy, but he would talk about himself all the time.

9.    Shall in questions
Shall I/we …? Can be used to ask for instructions and decisions, and to make offers and suggestions.
Example:
•  What on earth shall we do?
•  Shall I carry your bag?
•  What time shall we come and see you?
•  Shall we go out for a meal?











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